Monday, May 20, 2013

Filing- Its Importance,Qualities, types and Classification | Business Studies Class 11

Notes | Business Studies
HSEB Notes on Filing- Its Importance,Qualities, types and Classification 
Class : 11

Filing
Records are the valuable assets of every organization. They need to be preserved safely. Filing is used to keep the records safely so it is a form of record management. Filing is a systematic process of arranging and keeping the business records for the future reference. Business collects the different records from inside and outside the organization. These records are kept safely and efficient manner so that they can be available quickly and easily which is called filing. According to J.C. Denyer, “Filing is the process of arranging and storing records so that they can be located when required.” According to George Terry, “Filing system is the method of keeping papers in an accepted file according to pre-determine system so that they can be easily as well as quickly found.”
Based on above definition, it can be concluded that the process of arranging and storing the records for the future reference is called filing. Filing is done with the various purposes as follows:

Proper arrangement of records:
Office deals with different records day by day. Records have their own importance and categories. Filing makes the proper arrangement of such records by classifying and analyzing for the proper views as per the requirement.

Careful storing of records:
The importance purpose of filing is to keep the records and documents safely. Collected records may have their use in the future. So, filing keeps the records safely from insects, fire, water, theft, misplacement, etc. and makes available for the future use.

Easy availability of records:
Filing not only keeps the record safely but also arranges them in a systematic way which facilitates on the availability of records in a minimum effort.


Importance of filing:
Future references:
Human have limited memory power. We cannot remember everything. So, filing keeps the records safely for the future reference.

Planning and policy making:
Management requires facts and information to make plans, policies and decisions. Filing provides such facts and information.

Increase efficiency:
Filing makes readily availability of information without delay. It facilitates to run the business efficiently.

Written evidences:
Filing keeps the written records safely which can be present as an evidence in the court to settle disputes.

Promote goodwill:
Filing keeps the past records of customers and helps to deal with them accordingly which promotes companies goodwill.

Statutory requirements:
Filing keeps all the records safely which are useful to fulfill the statutory requirements.

Protection of documents:
Filing system is important to protect the valuable documents as well.

Qualities of good filing system:
Filing is maintained with certain objectives so it must consist some important qualities to fulfill its objectives. Some important qualities of good filing system are explained below:

Suitability:
The good filing system must be suitable according to the size and nature of organization.

Safety:
The main purpose of filing system is to provide safety to the records sot he good filing system should provide enough safety to the documents from fire, water, insects, rat, etc.

Rapidity:
The good filing system should facilitate the availability of records in a minimum time and effort.

Types of filing:
The commonly used filing system can be classified into two types as follows:

I. Traditional filing system:
Traditional filing system consists following important types:

Baggage file: (Pokey file)
Different types of personal documents such as ownership certificate, bills, etc. are packed in a piece of cloth under baggage or pokey filing.

Wire files: (Spike filing)
Under wire filing different types of bills, vouchers, receipts, etc. are inserted in the wires at houses.

Pigeon hole or Docket filing:
Under this filing a wooden drawer having so many holes like pigeon next is used in which records are kept under different classifications.

Cardboard filing:
Under the filing records are kept in a thick card board and bound with rope and such files can be kept into a drawer.

Box filing:
The method of keeping the records or documents in a thick cardboard box or wooden or metal box is called box filing.

II. Modern filing system:
Traditional filing method are proved unscientific and unsystematic due to increased size of business and its records. Traditional method fails to achieve the purposes of filing. In this respect, some modern methods of filing are evolved which are explained below:

Horizontal or flat filing system:
Under horizontal or flat filing a plastic or cardboard file is used in which records are inserted date wise or name wise or subject wise. The paper of records are punched by the punching machine and orderly inserted into the clip. The files with records are kept into the clip. The files with records are kept into the drawer and number is given to each file which facilitates to find out the files or records easily. In the modern age, flat files are commonly used in different offices. Flat filing system is very simple because an ordinary person can operate it easily. It is economic as well because the materials used on it bear low cost. The number of files can be increased or decreased as per the requirement so it is flexible. Despite of above advantages it suffers from some drawbacks such as time consuming, more space, limited capacity, lack of safety, etc.

Vertical filing system:
Vertical filing is developed to remove the drawbacks of horizontal filing. In this system, records are kept in the files and they are kept in a cabinets in a vertical position. It is the scientific method of filing in which documents do not need to be tied up of or clipped. In this filing, separate files are prepared for every customers or related papers. In this filing, some important materials are used such as files, cabinets, guide cards, absent cards, etc.

Advantages:
a. It is modern and scientific method of filing.
b. Records or documents can be kept safely.
c. It facilitates to keep large number of files in the cabinet.
d. It is flexible because number of files can be increased or decreased.

Disadvantages:
a. It is experience because it needs special and expensive cabinet.
b. It requires special skill to operate.
c. There is probability of misplacements of records because records are not tied up in the file.

Suspension filing:
It is an improved form of vertical filing. In this filing, the files are kept in a drawer that they do not reach to the bottom. Iron rods are fixed in the both sides of the drawer and folders are suspended with the help of clips and folders or files remained in a suspended position. Suspension filing avoids the drawback of misplacement of records in vertical filing. (Less change of misplacement of records)

Lateral filing system:
It is the advance method of filing. Under this system, records are kept in a special type of folder like an envelope and the folders are suspended in a drawer with the help of hooks in a drawer.

Open shelf filing system:
In this filing, a tall or big shelf with many planks is used. The shelf may be without door or with door as per the requirement. Files are kept in the planks as like as books in the library. Files are kept based on the number and dividers are kept to divide the files according to the subject matter.

Classification of filing:
Classification of files refers to the process of making groups of file according to their common feature. Some important types of classification are as follows:

Alphabetical classification:
It is simplest and popular form of classification in which files are arranged in an alphabetical order. In this filing separate file is maintained for each person or organization and they are arranged alphabetically in the drawer.

Advantages:
a. Easy to understand and operate.
b. Facility of self indexing.
c. Facilitates flexibility.
d. Quick reference.

Disadvantages:
a. Time consuming in big organizations.
b. Difficulty in case of same name.
c. Chance of misplacement is high.

Numerical classification:
Numerical classification of filing is very important and popular type of filing. When the files are arranged based on the number assigned to them is called numerical classification or filing. In this classification, a number is fixed to the particular file of customer and the files are arranged serially based on the number. When the records are to be maintained in a large volume then numerical classification becomes essential.

Advantages:
a. Greater accuracy in filing.
b. It is more flexible method of filing.
c. It facilitates easy and quick reference.
d. Index can be used for other purpose.

Disadvantages:
a. It is expensive than alphabetical classification.
b. It consumes more space.
c. Difficult to arrange miscellaneous papers. (records)

Geographical classification:
The process of classifying the records or files on the basis of different location is called geographical classification. Under this filing, files are arranged or classified in geographical order. Separate shelves are maintained for each location and the files are kept in respective shelves. Geographical classification is suitable to those organizations which have business in many geographical locations.

Advantages:
a. Easy to locate files or records if the location is known.
b. It makes possible to evaluate region wise sense progress.
c. It is direct and simple method of filing.

Disadvantages:
a. It requires the support of indexing.
b. It is time consuming.
c. Little knowledge of geographical location creates problem.

Subjective filing:
The process of classifying or arranging records based on the subject matter of correspondence or record is called subjective classification or filing. Under this classification records are classified based on different subject matter such as sales, production, account, etc. and records related to one subject are kept in one file. When the subject matter of dealing carries high importance that subjective filing becomes essential.

Advantages:
a. It has possibility of unlimited expansion.
b. Easy to locate files or records.
c. It provides complete information about same subject.

Disadvantages:
a. It is time consuming.
b. It is very difficult to classify the subject matter.
c. It is costly.

Chronological classification:
The process of classifying and arranging the records and documents on the basis of date is called chronological classification. It is the popular method of arranging vouchers, bills, reports of purchase and sales, newspapers, etc. It is easy method of filing but not suitable for the big organizations having large number of records.

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