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Download HSEB Notes of Physics | Mechanical Properties of Solids | Extra Reference | E-Book | Class 11
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Posted By on Saturday, March 9, 2013 | 10:34 PM

CLASS : 11
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we studied the rotation of the bodies and then realized that the motion of a body depends on how mass is distributed within the body. We restricted ourselves to simpler situations of rigid bodies. A rigid body generally means a hard solid object having a definite shape and size. But in reality, bodies can be stretched, compressed and bent. Even the appreciably rigid steel bar can be deformed when a
sufficiently large external force is applied on it. This means that solid bodies are not perfectly rigid. A solid has definite shape and size. In order to change (or deform) the shape or size of a body, a force is required. If you stretch a helical spring by gently pulling its ends, the length of the spring increases slightly. When you leave the ends of the spring, it regains its original size and shape. The property of a body, by virtue of which it tends to regain its original size and shape when the applied force is removed, is known as elasticity and the deformation caused is known as elastic deformation. However, if you apply force to a lump of putty or mud, they have no gross tendency to regain their previous shape, and they get permanently deformed. Such substances are called plastic and this property is called plasticity. Putty and mud are close to ideal plastics. The elastic behavior of materials plays an important role in engineering design. For example, while designing a building, knowledge of elastic properties of materials like steel, concrete etc. is essential. The same is true in the design of bridges, automobiles, rope ways etc. One could also ask Can we design an aeroplane which is very light but sufficiently strong? Can we design an artificial limb which is lighter but stronger? Why does a railway track have a particular shape like I? Why is glass brittle while brass is not? Answers to such questions begin with the study of how relatively simple kinds of loads or forces act to deform different solids bodies.

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